Green bonds used to finance damaging industrial tree plantations

14-05-2019 – Green bonds are used to finance business-as-usual tree plantations and operations of the paper & pulp industry and claiming exaggerated CO2 savings, a new briefing by the Environmental Paper Network (EPN) shows. The briefing presents a case study of a Green Bond issued by the Brazilian pulp & paper giant Fibria, even if the company has not engaged in any kind of environmental reorientation of its business activities. Instead, its Green Bond was used to finance expansions of monoculture industrial tree plantations.

The briefing argues that bonds for industrial tree plantations should not be eligible for a “green” label, as these do not provide additional ecological nor financial benefits. In addition to the negative ecological impacts such as reduction of water availability and pollution by pesticides and fertilizers, plantations have also caused numerous social and land conflicts with traditional communities in Brazil. In order to be beneficial for the climate, tree plantations should maintain and increase the amount of carbon stored in them over time, rather than have the trees quickly harvested and used for short lived products.

Fibria launched a Bond of USD 700 million in 2017 which according to the research by EPN has been mostly used to plant eucalyptus plantations and to purchase certified wood for its pulp mills. To a large extent these purchases are part of the everyday business of Fibria.

Green Bonds are supposed to be bonds earmarked for the financing of climate and environmental projects. Issuers of bonds like Fibria usually label bonds ‘green’ themselves, sometimes backed by different kinds of voluntary standards. However, the generally weak criteria of these standards and the poor disclosure requirements allow many business-as-usual projects to be labelled as “green”.

“The example of bonds by Fibria to finance business-as-usual industrial plantations raises the question of whether these self-labelled bonds and weak standards can credibly guarantee that money invested in these bonds will have a positive impact on the environmental and the climate”, said Merel van der Mark, coordinator of pulp finance work at the Environmental Paper Network.

“Green Bonds are an excellent opportunity to put together the growing demand for ethical investment for the huge environmental challenges the world is facing. They can attract resources otherwise unavailable and finance the implementation of projects that contribute to a better environment and climate. But this can only work if the green bonds can provide additional benefits, both financially and ecologically”, said Wolfgang Kuhlmann, the author of the briefing.

Contacts:
Wolfgang Kuhlmann, wolfgang.kuhlmann@araonline.de, +49 175 6040772
Merel van der Mark, merel@environmentalpaper.org, +316 1300 0656

Full report download. 

报告全文(英文)下载

以下中文由Google自动翻译,仅供参考

绿色债券被用于资助破坏性的工业林种植

14-05-2019  – 环保纸业网(EPN)的新简报显示,绿色债券用于为纸张和纸浆行业的常规树木种植和运营提供资金,并声称夸大了二氧化碳减排量。该简报介绍了巴西制浆造纸巨头Fibria发行的绿色债券案例研究,即使该公司未对其业务活动进行任何环境重新定位。相反,它的绿色债券被用来资助单一种植工业树种植园的扩张。
该简报认为,工业人工林的债券不应该有资格获得“绿色”标签,因为这些标签不提供额外的生态或经济利益。除了减少水资源供应和农药和化肥污染等负面生态影响外,种植园还与巴西的传统社区造成了许多社会和土地冲突。为了有利于气候,树木种植园应该保持和增加其中储存的碳量,而不是快速收获树木并用于短寿命产品。
根据EPN的研究,Fibria在2017年推出了7亿美元的债券,主要用于种植桉树种植园,并为其纸浆厂购买认证木材。这些购买在很大程度上是Fibria日常业务的一部分。
绿色债券应该是专门用于资助气候和环境项目的债券。像Fibria这样的债券发行人通常会将债券本身标记为“绿色”,有时候会受到不同类型的自愿性标准的支持。然而,这些标准普遍较弱的标准和不良的披露要求允许许多一切照旧的项目被标记为“绿色”。
“Fibria债券为常规工业种植园提供融资的例子提出了这样一个问题:这些自我标记债券和弱标准是否可以可靠地保证投资于这些债券的资金将对环境和气候产生积极影响”环境纸业网络纸浆金融工作协调员Merel van der Mark说。
“绿色债券是一个绝佳的机会,可以应对不断增长的道德投资需求,以应对全球面临的巨大环境挑战。它们可以吸引其他方面无法获得的资源,并为实施有助于改善环境和气候的项目提供资金。但这只能在绿色债券能够在经济和生态方面提供额外收益时才有效“,该简报的作者沃尔夫冈库尔曼说。
联系方式:
Wolfgang Kuhlmann,wolfgang.kuhlmann@aaraonline.de,+ 49 175 6040772
Merel van der Mark,merel@enonalalpaper.org,+ 316 1300 0656

《针对森林生物质能源的立场声明》

 生物质能源之错觉 | The Biomass Delusion
《针对森林生物质能源的立场声明
我们有一个共同的愿景,即世界各地繁茂生长的天然森林在应对气候变化方面发挥重要作用,帮助地球上的所有生命创造一个清洁、健康、公正和可持续的未来。鉴于下列原因,我们不能让大规模森林生物质能源的生产成为这个未来愿景的一部分。相反,我们必须保护和修复天然森林,从而减少排放并从大气中吸收二氧化碳,同时促进生物多样性、抗灾力和社会安康。
为生产能源而大规模燃烧森林生物质的后果包括:
危害气候
这种做法并不低碳 – 为了能源而燃烧森林生物质的做法不是碳中性的。它会即刻将大量温室气体排放到大气中。相比之下,让森林再生并进行碳封存则需要几十年到几个世纪的漫长时间,这无法对达成巴黎协定的1.5°C目标做出有效贡献。森林砍伐和生物能源供应链产生的直接和间接排放也会给森林生物质能源的总体碳平衡造成负面影响。
这种做法受到了碳会计缺陷的鼓励 – 目前的碳会计规则将生物质燃烧视为零排放技术,使其在能源部门中体现为零排放,这鼓励了森林生物质能源的使用。碳会计规则规定,在生物质被砍伐时,再对所有排放进行计算,从而将负担放在了林业生产者而不是生物质消费者身上。然而,土地利用部门中的森林碳排放核算存在致命缺陷,通常会低估排放量。所有国家的碳排放清单都很少准确反映生物质燃烧的真正碳成本。
危害森林
这种做法危害生物多样性和气候抗灾力 – 将森林生物质用于能源生产,可以巩固、加剧和扩大森林砍伐。这会使森林生态系统退化,破坏生物多样性和土壤,并削弱森林提供清洁饮用水、防洪和清洁空气等生态系统服务的能力。为获得生物质能源而将森林和其他生态系统改造为工业化单作林的做法尤其有害。在上述影响加剧之时,我们认识到以权利为基础的生态保护和生态修复可以改善森林的健康和状态,并增强其抵抗气候变化和其他环境灾害的能力。
这种做法削弱了森林减缓气候变化的潜力 – 科学家们现在认同,为了实现巴黎协定的目标——即努力将全球变暖限制在1.5摄氏度以内——我们需要从大气中吸收二氧化碳。一种安全且经过验证的方法是保护和修复天然林。为获得生物质而砍伐森林则会起到反作用。
危害人类
这种做法损害社群权利和利益 – 对生物质的需求可能加剧与土地和森林资源相关的冲突,包括土地掠夺。这危害了原住民部落和当地社群的权利、利益、生活、生计和文化价值,也对依赖森林资源的老牌企业不利。广泛的负面效应还可能对更多民众的粮食安全造成长期影响。
这种做法危害人类健康和幸福 – 森林在保护各类社群免受气候变化的最严重影响方面发挥着重要作用。生活在毁林地区的人们往往最容易受到气候变化的影响,且面临着压迫性的采掘业的危害。此外,生物质制造和燃烧设施通常位于社会经济不发达的地区,造成空气污染,导致呼吸道疾病和其他疾病的增加。当地的生活质量受到影响。
危害清洁能源转型
这种做法为煤炭能源提供了一条生命线 – 正当我们需要淘汰高排放的工业规模燃煤的时候,将森林生物质和煤炭共同燃烧的做法会为火电站延续寿命。
这种做法与其他可再生能源争夺投资 – 生物质能源与各类低排放的可再生能源方案竞争政府激励资源,因此不利于后者的发展。与投资风能和太阳能等低排放技术不同,投资生物质能源需要不断投入原料成本,且依赖于持续的补贴。
 
作为本声明的签署者,我们坚信,必须用比燃烧森林生物质更好的方法来有效应对气候变化。我们呼吁各国政府、金融家、企业和民间社会避免让森林生物质能源产业继续扩大,并停止使用这种能源。对森林生物质能源的补贴必须被撤销。保护和修复世界各地的森林是气候变化的一个解决方案,燃烧它们则不是。
 
若想和我们一起支持此项声明,请打开以下网页,确认您已经阅读声明全文,然后填写表格并提交。
声明网址:http://environmentalpaper.org/the-biomass-delusion/

EPN:银行浆纸业环境政策评估报告发布

The Environmental Paper Network (EPN)* has published In the Redan assessment of bank policies for financing pulp and paper companies worldwideThis assessment reveals that the banks most deeply involved in the pulp and paper sector do not have public policies that will ensure they avoid financing projects and companies that cause environmental and social harm.
 
EPN日前在全球范围内公布了有关浆纸企业融资的银行政策评估报告In the Red。该报告表明深度涉足浆纸业的银行并没有相关公共政策来避免该融资项目和纸张公司所引起的环境和社会危害。

The assessment studied how ready the financial sector is to manage the environmental and social risks of financial involvement with the pulp and paper industry. It is a benchmark assessment carried out by a team of researchers from several countries, which evaluated the pulp and paper policies of 42 private banks against the requirements set out in 2016 in Green Paper, Red Lines.

该报告还研究了金融部门是否准备好应对浆纸业项目带来的环境与社会风险。这份由来自数个国家的研究者产出的准基报告,认定有42家私营银行的浆纸政策不符和2016年发布的《Green Paper, Red Lines》报告所提出的要求。

The Red Lines are regulatory, environmental and social criteria, which articulate minimum requirements that pulp and paper companies must meet before investment in them is considered. Unless pulp and paper mills and their financiers fulfil these requirements, they are highly likely to cause social and environmental harm and become the target of campaigns by civil society organisations.  Member organisations of EPN therefore expect financiers to stay clear if their client pulp and paper companies are unable to meet the minimum requirements. The unacceptable level of relevant policies in financial institutions clearly demonstrates a lack of accountability and commitment regarding these issues.

报告所列涉及管理、环境保护与社会影响的标准,是浆纸公司符合融资条件的最低要求。如果浆纸工厂和投资者不能履行这些条款,他们极有可能造成社会与环境危害并成为公民社会组织的众矢之的。EPN的成员组织因此希望投资者对他们的浆纸业客户是否能够达到最低标准保持清醒的认知。金融机构相关环境政策的水平令人难以置信,恰好说明了对环境责任感与承诺的缺失。

Mandy Haggith, co-ordinator of the Environmental Paper Network’s pulp finance working group, said: “The results of our assessment reveal that bank policies are extremely disappointing. Unfortunately none of the banks we assessed manages to thoroughly protect itself from clients breaching the Red Lines. Indeed for most of the Red Lines, the vast bulk of banks are at best only partly protected. We can only conclude that the banking sector does not have policies that are fit for purpose to avoid irresponsible investment in damaging pulp and paper projects and companies. We urge all banks to review and strengthen their policies for involvement in this sector.”

EPN浆纸金融工作组的协调人 Mandy Haggith说:“我们这份报告结果显示,银行的环境政策是极度令人失望的。我们评估的银行中,很不幸地,没有一家能够保证他们的客户能够达到Green Paper, Red Lines的标准。实际上报告中的多数标准,大部分银行顶多只是部分涉及。我们只能推断,银行业没有相适应的政策来避免浆纸类项目中不负责任的投资。因此,我们迫切希望银行能够重新审视和加强他们的相关政策。”

* EPN is a global network of more than 140 non-governmental organisations, working on pulp and paper sustainability issues, all of which endorse the Global Paper Vision.

* EPN是一家超过40家非政府组织组成的全球网络,致力于浆纸业的可持续发展。所有成员组织均签署了Global Paper Vision

Links

–      In the Red: report on the assessment of bank policies – http://www.environmentalpaper.eu/in-the-red/
–      The Green Paper, Red Lines criteria – http://www.environmentalpaper.eu/red-lines-for-pulp-mill-finance/
–      Global Paper Vision – http://www.environmentalpaper.eu/our-common-vision/
 

EPN:银行浆纸业环境政策评估报告发布

The Environmental Paper Network (EPN)* has published In the Redan assessment of bank policies for financing pulp and paper companies worldwideThis assessment reveals that the banks most deeply involved in the pulp and paper sector do not have public policies that will ensure they avoid financing projects and companies that cause environmental and social harm.
 
EPN日前在全球范围内公布了有关浆纸企业融资的银行政策评估报告In the Red。该报告表明深度涉足浆纸业的银行并没有相关公共政策来避免该融资项目和纸张公司所引起的环境和社会危害。

The assessment studied how ready the financial sector is to manage the environmental and social risks of financial involvement with the pulp and paper industry. It is a benchmark assessment carried out by a team of researchers from several countries, which evaluated the pulp and paper policies of 42 private banks against the requirements set out in 2016 in Green Paper, Red Lines.

该报告还研究了金融部门是否准备好应对浆纸业项目带来的环境与社会风险。这份由来自数个国家的研究者产出的准基报告,认定有42家私营银行的浆纸政策不符和2016年发布的Green Paper, Red Lines报告所提出的要求。

The Red Lines are regulatory, environmental and social criteria, which articulate minimum requirements that pulp and paper companies must meet before investment in them is considered. Unless pulp and paper mills and their financiers fulfil these requirements, they are highly likely to cause social and environmental harm and become the target of campaigns by civil society organisations.  Member organisations of EPN therefore expect financiers to stay clear if their client pulp and paper companies are unable to meet the minimum requirements. The unacceptable level of relevant policies in financial institutions clearly demonstrates a lack of accountability and commitment regarding these issues.

报告所列涉及管理、环境保护与社会影响的标准,是浆纸公司符合融资条件的最低要求。如果浆纸工厂和投资者不能履行这些条款,他们极有可能造成社会与环境危害并成为公民社会组织的众矢之的。EPN的成员组织因此希望投资者对他们的浆纸业客户是否能够达到最低标准保持清醒的认知。金融机构相关环境政策的水平令人难以置信,恰好说明了对环境责任感与承诺的缺失。

Mandy Haggith, co-ordinator of the Environmental Paper Network’s pulp finance working group, said: “The results of our assessment reveal that bank policies are extremely disappointing. Unfortunately none of the banks we assessed manages to thoroughly protect itself from clients breaching the Red Lines. Indeed for most of the Red Lines, the vast bulk of banks are at best only partly protected. We can only conclude that the banking sector does not have policies that are fit for purpose to avoid irresponsible investment in damaging pulp and paper projects and companies. We urge all banks to review and strengthen their policies for involvement in this sector.”

EPN浆纸金融工作组的协调人 Mandy Haggith说:“我们这份报告结果显示,银行的环境政策是极度令人失望的。我们评估的银行中,很不幸地,没有一家能够保证他们的客户能够达到Green Paper, Red Lines的标准。实际上报告中的多数标准,大部分银行顶多只是部分涉及。我们只能推断,银行业没有相适应的政策来避免浆纸类项目中不负责任的投资。因此,我们迫切希望银行能够重新审视和加强他们的相关政策。”

* EPN is a global network of more than 140 non-governmental organisations, working on pulp and paper sustainability issues, all of which endorse the Global Paper Vision.

* EPN是一家超过40家非政府组织组成的全球网络,致力于浆纸业的可持续发展。所有成员组织均签署了《Global Paper Vision》。

Links
–      In the Red: report on the assessment of bank policies – http://www.environmentalpaper.eu/in-the-red/
–      The Green Paper, Red Lines criteria – http://www.environmentalpaper.eu/red-lines-for-pulp-mill-finance/
–      Global Paper Vision – http://www.environmentalpaper.eu/our-common-vision/
 

Researchers discover two tiny new primate species in a far-flung forest

Researchers discover two tiny new primate species in a far-flung forest
by Bruno Vander Velde   May 4, 2017

Two species of tarsier — including Tarsius supriatnai, pictured — were recently discovered on Indonesia’s Sulawesi island. (© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier)

Two new species of tarsier — a tiny, nocturnal primate found only in parts of Southeast Asia — have been discovered on an island in Indonesia, a new study confirms.

With their adorably large eyes and prominent ears, tarsiers are rumored to have been the inspiration for Yoda from the “Star Wars” films. The new study, cannily published in the journal Primate Conservation on “Star Wars Day” — “May the Fourth be with you!” — raises a new hope for future forest conservation efforts in one of the world’s most exquisitely biodiverse regions.

“These two new species are the 80th and 81st primates new to science described since 2000 — this represents about 16 percent of all primate species known, and is indicative of how little we know of our planet’s unique and wonderful biodiversity,” said Russ Mittermeier, a primatologist with Conservation International (CI) and one of the study’s co-authors. “If we haven’t even gotten a handle on the diversity our closest living relatives, which by comparison are relatively well-studied, imagine how much we still have to learn about the rest of life on Earth.”

Tarsiers may as well have come straight out of a science-fiction film.

An adult male tarsier weighs about as much as a stick of butter. Its massive eyes — each as large as its brain, and the largest relative to body size of any mammal — are fixed in their sockets. (Helpfully, tarsiers can turn their head more than 180 degrees in either direction, like an owl.) The long-legged, long-tailed creatures can leap as many as 3 meters (10 feet) in a single bound. And rare among primates, they are completely carnivorous, eating only live food (mostly insects).

The two new species were discovered on the northern arm of Sulawesi, a large, orchid-shaped island in Indonesia. Their scientific names — Tarsius spectrumgurskyae and Tarsius supriatnai — honor prominent scientists: Sharon Gursky, a tarsier expert at Texas A&M University, and Jatna Supriatna, a biology professor at the University of Indonesia and a former director of CI Indonesia. While the two new tarsier species appear similar to each other (and to other tarsiers), they were isolated as new species through their distinct vocalizations and genetic data.

“Slash and burn” deforestation practices have degraded the area closest to the Nantu site on Sulawesi, home of Tarsius supriatnai. (© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier)

The study’s authors write that their research highlights the “conservation crisis” facing the region. As recently as 2014, Indonesia had the highest rate of deforestation in the world; habitats of unique and endemic species — including orangutans, Sumatran rhinos and tigers — have shrunk rapidly due in large part to unsustainable agricultural expansion.

The study’s lead author, Western Washington University researcher Myron Shekelle told the website MongaBay: “Sulawesi, like many regions in the tropics, is facing a conservation crisis. The big difference between Sulawesi and elsewhere is that owing to the complex geological history of the island, we have likely underestimated the true diversity of species there by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, each time habitat loss causes the extinction of what we might have thought was one species, the actual number of extinctions might be 10 times greater than that.”

He continued: “Primates, such as these two tarsier species, serve as flagships for conservation awareness. And if we set aside habitat for these two species, then as a result, we will also have set aside for the myriad other species of plants, insects and everything else that no one has the time, money, or interest to study, but which one day we may see as valuable, perhaps because they provide a drug to cure your child’s cancer, or perhaps just because we value it all as a part of the web of life to which we, ourselves, are connected.”

Bruno Vander Velde is CI’s editorial director.

中国首个物流环保公益基金成立

3月17日,中国首个物流环保公益基金——菜鸟绿色联盟公益基金在京成立。
 
基金是由菜鸟网络、阿里巴巴公益基金会、中华环保基金会发起,并联合圆通、中通、申通、韵达、百世、天天等六家快递公司,共同出资成立。
 
基金将专注于解决日趋严重的物流业污染现状,推动快递包装创新改良,促进快递车辆使用清洁能源,引导运用大数据技术减少资源浪费,更好的保护生态环境。
 
环保部副部长赵英民在致辞中给菜鸟绿色联盟基金点赞:
 
“菜鸟网络、阿里巴巴公益基金会与中华环保基金会的这次合作,从推动物流行业转型发展,开发绿色供应链和循环发展、低碳发展方面来说,是一次非常有力的尝试。用自己的行动,在行业中开了一个好头。”
 
打造绿色经济新时代
阿里巴巴一直在路上
 
2016年6月,阿里巴巴公益基金会与菜鸟网络、中华环保基金会一起,联合国内外32家物流合作伙伴成立了“菜鸟绿色联盟”,共同启动了物流业迄今为止最大的一次环保联合行动——绿动计划。截至目前,已经进行多项环保创新改进,推出了100%可生物降解的快递包装袋和无胶带环保纸箱。截止目前已经有近50万绿色包裹送达消费者手中。
 
比如“绿动计划”研发的包装袋,真正做到了100%生物降解,正常在自然环境下几个月之内就会完全分解被土壤吸收。
 
还有无胶带的快递纸箱,完全不用容易产生污染的传统胶带,通过使用更耐压耐破的新型纸板和设计,免去了使用透明胶带加固封箱的必要。
 
正如阿里巴巴集团CPO、菜鸟网络董事长童文红所说,阿里是中国最大的电商平台,菜鸟是中国最大的大数据物流平台,所以牵头解决物流业的环保化,阿里巴巴和菜鸟网络是责无旁贷。
 
“绿色物流是一项系统工程,绝非一个平台、一家企业能够独立完成,需要政府、快递企业、商家和消费者的共同努力和担当。”
 
阿里巴巴公益基金会秘书长王瑞合则提到:
 
电子商务通过“让数据多跑路”实现了“让人少跑路”,对于减少公众经济活动对环境的负面影响,降低治理污染成本,体现了巨大的环保价值。2015年,网络零售因节省能耗与物耗,而减少排放约3000万吨二氧化碳,相当于新增鄱阳湖面积大小的森林。
“我们希望,不光是电商领域,与其紧密相连的物流产业也在绿色环保领域有所突破。”
 
而如今建立的专项基金,将成为“绿动计划”良好的奠基石。一座通往绿色经济时代的桥梁,正在跨越现在与未来,连接着现实与梦想。
 
 
未来计划投入三亿
推动绿色物流升级
 
未来,基金共计划投入3亿元,用于开展绿色物流、绿色消费、绿色供应链等方面的研究、倡导和推动。
 
 “只要大家都主动参与到节约资源,保护环境的行动中来,我们的环境改善就会指日可待,蓝天就会一年比一年多,全面建成小康社会的生态文明新时代也就会早日到来。”中华环境保护基金会理事长傅雯娟对未来充满了希冀。
 
“专项基金的成立只是一个开始。”王瑞合说道,“阿里基金会承诺未来五年直接投入会达到一亿,更希望以此为支点,撬动更多的企业和公众参与到绿色消费升级中,让更多的物流企业有意愿、有能力采用更环保的包装和运输方式,让更多的消费者有意识、有动力选择使用绿色包裹,让整个物流行业效能再度提升,并且对环境更加友好。”。
 
下一步,阿里巴巴不仅会推动绿色物流的升级,更要继续在淘宝、天猫上推动绿色消费,在蚂蚁金服推动绿色金融,在阿里云推动绿色计算,还将为中国的绿色消费升级打造一个更广阔、更高效的商业基础设施平台,提供更智能、更人性的绿色服务。
 
未来,还有更多可能。也许无需多久,一个全新的绿色经济时代,就将到来。

本文引自 阿里巴巴公益公众号